Homework August 26: Constructing a research paper

Parts of a Research Paper:

Here is a comprehensive list of the parts a research paper could/should have. Of course, the parts presented here may correspond to a monograph or more complex paper. Evaluating the sections relevant for your current situation is the task at hand.

Since this semester we will work on a more simple document (15 pages, 15 references),  explore the web and come up with the basic parts a paper should have for this class. This finished, organized list needs to be submitted by Friday, August 28.

Once again, your task  is to explore different academic websites, read, understand, make decisions, write down a list of those parts and decide the order they should have. You can do this in pairs or groups.

  • Title page
  • Dedication (optional)
  • Preface (optional)
  • Table of Contents (optional in short papers)
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and method
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix (optional)

Title page:


1. Select an informative title
2. Include the following material in the order given:

  • Title of paper
  • Secondary title (optional)
  • Full name of author
  • Submission statement
  • Date submitted.

The Preface:

If the author wishes he may explain his topic choice and share his interest in the field studied

The Table of Contents (optional in short papers):

In a long research paper, a table of contents should go on a separate page titled TABLE OF CONTENTS. It should contain, with the page number:

  • The title of each chapter or division, followed by the title of each important subdivision
  • The appendix, if the paper has it
  • The bibliography

Abstract:

It is a short (up to 200 words) summary of the entire work. It should include:

It is usually written when the rest of the paper is completed. It allows the reader to learn the essentials of the study in a short period of time.

Basic rules:

  • economy of words
  • complete sentences
  • a single concise paragraph
  • writing in a past tense
  • corrrect spelling, clear sentences and phrases, proper reporting of quantities
  • stands on its own, doesn’t refer to any other part of the paper
  • focuses on summarizing results

Introduction:

Has three main purposes:

  • provides background and motivation for the topic
  • describes the focus and purpose of the paper
  • gives an overview of what is contained in the paper’s various sections.

Basic rules:

  • up to two pages (double spaced, typed)
  • usage of a past tense except when referring to established facts
  • one major point in organizing ideas with each paragraph
  • precise statements

Materials and Method:

This section gives the reader enough information to study the subject and to use your materials in his own work if desired. Here you describe what you did, the way you did it, present precise facts, your work is based on.

Basic Do’s and Don’t’s:

  • be as concise as you possibly can
  • use third person passive voice.
  • use complete sentences.
  • avoid informal lists

Results:

This section proves your views with the data. The page length depends on the amount and type of the information to be reported. The purpose of the section is to demonstrate the results of your investigation

Basic rules:

  • use past tense
  • put the results in a logical order
  • refer to each figure as “figure 1,” “figure 2,”; number your tables
  • each figure and table stands on its own
  • do not include raw data or intermediate calculations in your paper
  • do not present the same information more than once

Discussion:

The main purpose of this section is to explain why the results came out as they did, focusing on the principles of the investigation.

Basic Rules:

  • the limit is up to five typed double-spaced pages
  • use past tense referring to work done by specific individuals and present tense referring to generally accepted facts and principles
  • present the data in appropriate depth

Bibliography:

  • list the items in an alphabetical order, by first author
  • don’t include a website as a reference
  • citing an on -line journal, use the journal citation

Appendix (optional):

Sometimes it may serve as a valuable addition to a research paper. It might contain a letter, a map, a table — i. e. materials, that are important to the reader, but they didn’t find their place in the text itself

  • Note that research paper parts are to be found in the text in the same order they were presented here.
  • Please, pay much attention to research paper organization, keeping to the rules studied, and impress your tutor with results of your work.

Taken from: Custom writing

7 Responses to “Homework August 26: Constructing a research paper”

  1. Carlos Estupiñan Villa August 28, 2015 at 11:48 pm #

    Members:

    Kevin Cuaran
    Juan Carlos Acosta
    Carlos Estupiñan
    Camilo Arciniegas

    TITLE OF THE PAPER: The Abstract: The letter of presentation for a scientific paper

    FULL NAME OF THE AUTHOR: Diego Camps

    SUBMISSION STATEMENT: Received for publication July 23, 2009

    DATE SUBMITTED: Accepted for publication January 12th, 2010

    http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1657-95342010000100011

    ABSTRACT

    The abstract is a part of scientific articles placed at the beginning of such. It guides us quickly and accurately about the information we will find in the complete manuscript. It must be written by selecting the appropriate words and sentences to achieve consistent, clear, and concise contents. We can group the abstract into two types according to their content: the descriptive abstract, which guides the reader regarding the contents of the article but requires reading the full text for further details; and the informative abstract, which condenses the study and provides accurate data about the contents of the paper. The abstract has become a fundamental part of the scientific article, especially with the explosive growth of information; an adequate and well-built abstract allows scientists and researchers to recognize the work done by its authors. Attention should be dedicated to its construction because the success of our publication depends upon the very abstract.
    Keywords: Summary; Scientific writing; Mistakes; Health; Publication components.
    http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1657-95342010000100011

    INTRODUCTION

    Over the past decade there has been a great deal of interest in the role of reflective thinking in teachers’ professional development (FARRELL, 2008; RICHARDS; LOCKHART, 1994; SCHON, 1996) and in narrative as means of provoking teachers’ reflective thinking (BARKHUIZEN, 2007; BOLTON, 2006; LYONS; LABOSKEY, 2002). This turn towards narrative as a tool for teacher reflection also reflects a broader emerging view of teachers’ knowledge. According to Johnson (2006, p. 242), within the field of TESOL “narrative has emerged as a predominant means of understanding and documenting teachers’ ways of knowing”. Because pedagogical knowledge tends to be bound up with practical day-to-day experience, narrative seems to be an especially apt key to teachers’ knowledge. Through narratives, teachers are able to “impose order and coherence on the stream of experience and work out the meaning of incidents and events in the real world” (CARTER, 1993, p, 7). Much of the argument for the use of narratives as a professional development tool in teaching rests upon broader assumption about the centrality of stories to human life. Although she advocates narrative writing 384 Rev. Brasileira de Lingüística Aplicada, v. 8, n. 2, 2008 in the context of teacher development, Bolton (2006, p. 203) argues that “all professional and personal experience is naturally storied” and that telling and writing stories are ‘prime human ways of understanding, communicating and remembering’. Polkinghorne (1988, p. 1) argues similarly that narrative is “the primary form by which human experience is made meaningful”. Although the purposes of storytelling and the kinds of stories that are told vary from culture to culture, the activity of storytelling seems to be universal. Narrative researchers have also argued that the stories we tell about ourselves influence the ways in which we live our lives. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbla/v8n2/06.pdf

    PROCEDURES AND METHOD

    The study draws on three sources of data, collected in the following ways.
    3.1 Survey
    EFL secondary school teachers attending professional conferences or in-service professional development seminars, most of whom had not yet received any formal training in classroom research methods/techniques, completed a simple questionnaire where they provided some basic bio data and answered the following question: ‘If you had the necessary resources (time, training and support), which aspect/s of your teaching would you like to research?’ This question was chosen as it was assumed that the topics identified would reveal the problems and issues of concern to the teachers in their specific teaching contexts.
    A list was drawn up of all the topics generated by the questionnaires; these were then coded, and classified into general topic areas (See 4: Results).
    The questionnaires were answered by teachers from Argentina, Costa Rica, Spain, and Pakistan , as these were the communities to which I had access when I began the study. In other words, the communities were selected on a convenience basis but, fortunately, they spawned data from four continents and represented not only non-mainstream contexts but also one mainstream TESOL country, Spain (See footnote 1). As most of the teachers taught in at least two institutions, they were instructed to express their research preferences for the state/public school contexts and/or for the not-so- privileged private secondary school contexts in which they taught. (Many private schools even in non-mainstream countries are very privileged and the teaching and learning conditions reflect those of mainstream country schools; these were not the focus of this study.)

    3.2 Meta-Analysis (1)

    A meta-analysis was conducted of the research topics selected by EFL secondary school teachers who were doing, and who had already done, research into their own practices. In the case of the former, the topics were listed as ongoing research in the Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 5, September 2003 (CALJ); in the case of the latter, the topics were identified in the actual reports of their research which Colombian teachers had published in the PROFILE Journal. Although both of these sources are from the same country, this, as we will see in Discussion, is not as restricting as it may seem and may even have served to strengthen the argument in this article. Once again, all the research topics pertained to the work of teachers in state or not-very-privileged private secondary schools.

    3.3 Meta-Analysis (2)
    Yet another meta-analysis was conducted. This analysis focuses on the EF/SL/FL topics in research articles in three international journals. These journals (See 4.3) are commonly recognised by mainstream TESOL researchers as three of the journals which have most influence on the beliefs and practices of FL teaching in general and the international TESOL community in particular. The results for the three groupings (3.1, 3.2 and 3.3) were then juxtaposed to check for convergence of interests and concerns, and these results are described and analysed in 4.

    3.4 Questions

    Although this study does not represent a formal piece of research, the following questions served to give it a sense of direction and purpose:
    • Which topic areas are the most common among the teachers/teacher researchers in the survey and in meta-analysis 1?
    • What are the messages and insights which emanate from EFL secondary school teachers’ research topic preferences?
    • What convergence, if any, is there between the interests of EFL secondary school teachers’ research concerns and the research concerns of mainstream TESOL?
    • Why, if at all, are the research interests and concerns of secondary school teachers important, not just to the teachers themselves but to mainstream TESOL? • To what extent, if any, are these messages and insights being listened to and acted upon by the mainstream?
    http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?pid=S1657-07902005000100002&script=sci_arttext

    RESULTS

    In this study “EFL Teachers’ Research and Mainstream TESOL: Ships Passing in the Night?” a group of teachers from different parts of the world attended to a conference about a training in classroom researching. It pretended to help teachers to identify topics in an EFL setting that needed to be considered. After everything has been explained, a questioner was provided with some questions about the main topic. A total of 66 teachers answered the test and then, their answers showed that:
    Some of them have problems with their methodology, others expressed that grammar was something that needed to be considered and others said that teachers have not focused on research.
    The author of this study made a research about the different aspects that teachers wanted to be improved. There were lot of information that could help them to better their classes but aspects such as interest in the class or the spirit of researching in the EFL setting were the main problem.

    DISCUSSION

    The author of this study (“EFL Teachers’ Research and Mainstream TESOL: Ships Passing in the Night?”) claimed to describe that teachers had a common interest in the TESOL research field. Although, the teachers were from different countries they presented the same worries about their field which reflected some issues and problems to be taking into account.
    The researcher said that TESOL must be a global community which helps teachers with their issues in order to help them and to help others. According to the author, TESOL did not reflect the needs or realities of EFL setting because it is too general.

    BIBLOGRAPHY

    Breen, M. (2001). The Social Context for Language Learning: A Neglected Situation. In C.N. Candlin & N. Mercer (Eds.), English language teaching in its social context (pp. 122-144). London and New York: Routledge in association with Macquarie University and The Open University.

    Burns, A. (1999). Collaborative action research for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Carnagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Cárdenas, R. (2003). Developing reflective and investigative skills in teacher preparation programs: The design and implementation of the classroom research component at the foreign language program of Universidad de Valle. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 5, 22-40.

    Dewey, J. (1929). The sources of a science of education. New York: Liveright.
    Edge, J. and Richards, K. (Eds.). (1993). Teachers develop teachers research. Papers on classroom research and teacher development. Oxford: Heinemann.

    Elliott, J. (2004). The struggle to redefine the relationship between ‘knowledge’ and ‘action’ in the academy and society: Some reflections on action research in the light of the work of John Macmurray. Educar 34, 11-26.

    Freeman, D. (1998). Doing teacher research. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

    Holliday, A. (1998). Appropriate methodologies and social context. Cambridge:
    Cambridge University Press.

    Jakobovits, L. and Gordon, B. (1974). The context of foreign language teaching. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House.

    Kachru, B. (1986). The alchemy of English. The spread function and models of non-native English. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

    Kachru, B. and Nelson, C.L. (2001). World Englishes. In A. Burns and C. Coffin (Eds.), Analysing English in a global context: A reader (pp. 9-25). London and New York:

    Routledge in association with Macquarie University and The Open University.
    Kramsch, C. (1993). Content and culture in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Lagemannn, E. C. (1999). Whither schools of education? Whither education research? Journal of Teacher Education, 50, 373-376.
    Marcondes, M. (1999). Teacher education in Brazil. Journal of Education for Teaching, 25, 203-213.

    Musumeci, D. (1997) Breaking tradition: An exploration of the historical relationship between theory and practice in second language teaching. USA: MCGraw Hill Companies.

    Nunan, D. (1989). Understanding language classrooms. A guide for teacher-initiated action. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.

    Pennycook, A. (1994). The cultural politics of English as an international language. Harlow: Longman.

    Phillippson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ]

    Poole, A. (2003). New labels for old problems: Grammar in communicative language teaching. PROFILE Issues in Teachers´ Professional Development, 4, 18-24.

    Rainey, I. (2002). Lessons from the less successful language learner. SPELT, 17 (2), 1-14.

    Rainey, I. (2000). Action research and the EFL practitioner: Time to take stock. Educational Action Research: An International Journal, 8 (1), 65-92.

    Richards, J. C. (1998). Teaching in action: Case studies from second language classroom. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

    Riley, K. (2000). Teachers as researchers. SPELT, 14 (3), 24-27.

    Stenhouse, L. (1975). An introduction to curriculum research and development. London: Heinemann.

    Wallace, M. J. (1998). Action research for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers: A reflective approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    This article has been taken from
    http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?pid=S1657-07902005000100002&script=sci_arttext

  2. Sara Burbano August 29, 2015 at 3:00 pm #

    Alix Artega Arteaga
    Maria Jose Benavides
    Sara sofia Burbano
    Gisell Chapal

    Constructing a Research Paper

    1. Title of our research paper
    2. Introduction
    3. Methods
    4. Results
    5. Discussion
    6. Conclusion
    7. Bibliography (References)

  3. Tatiana Ruiz Moncayo, Maria Alejandra Mideros, Carlos Andres Gaviria August 30, 2015 at 5:29 pm #

    Tatiana Ruiz Moncayo
    Maria Alejandra Mideros
    Carlos Andres Gaviria

    Constructing a research paper

    1. Title of the research paper
    2. Abstract
    3. Introduction
    4. Literature review
    5. Procedure
    6. Results
    7. Discussion/ Conclusion
    8. References/ Bibliography

    Taken from: cirt.gce.edu

  4. Jair Steven Portilla Vallejos, Maria Fernanda Criollo, Oscar Ayala, Diego Fernando Estrella August 30, 2015 at 11:19 pm #

    Constructing a Research Paper

    1. Title of the research paper
    2. Abstract
    3. Introduction
    4. Method
    5. Results
    6. Discussion
    7. Reference List

    Constructing a Research Paper:

    1. Tittle of the research: We need the tittle or the possible tittle of our research. Here are examples of 3 common types of titles
     Question: Can PF Correction Increase Profits?
     Summary: Design and Testing of a Small Power Company
     2-Part: Power System Operation: How to Survive an Emergency

    2. Abstract: The abstract is a short (about 100-500 word) summary of the entire paper. It should include: goals and objectives, results, and conclusions. It is usually one of the last parts of the paper to be written.

    3. Introduction: Is the first part of the process, setting down the direction of the paper and laying out exactly what the research paper is trying to achieve. The introduction also has three main purposes. First, it provides background and motivation for your topic (usually includes a review of current literature on the topic). Second, it describes the focus and purpose of the paper you are writing. Third, it gives an overview of what is contained in the paper’s various sections.

    4. Methods: This section describes what you did, how you did it, gives strategies, sample calculations, diagrams and circuits, and descriptions of equipment. The goal here is to give the reader sufficient inforamation to be able to repeat your work if desired. Methods should be the easiest part of the paper to write, as it is a run-down of the exact design and methodology used to perform the research. Obviously, the exact methodology varies depending upon the exact field and type of experiment.

    5. Results: This section is where you prove your point with the data. Give graphs and tables of costs, profits, whatever your data is. Also give some description or guide to help the reader recognize your important points. Results are probably the most variable part of any research paper, and depend upon the results and aims of the experiment.

    6. Conclusions: Here you state what your learned or proved. What are the “take home messages” or major accomplishments of this work? You may also describe interesting observations, new questions, and future work here. Conclusion is where you elaborate upon your findings, and explain what you found, adding your own personal interpretations.

    7. Bibliography: A lists of the references you used in the work & writing the paper. No paper is complete without a bibliography documenting all of the sources that you used for your research. This should be laid out according to APA, MLA or other specified format, allowing any interested researcher to follow up on the research.

    Taken from: http://ece.k-state.edu/~starret/684/paper.html

  5. yeferson galeano August 31, 2015 at 10:56 am #

    Yeferson Galeano
    Oscar Flores

    Constructing a Research Paper

    1. Title of our research paper
    2. Author`s name
    3. Abstract
    4. Introduction
    5. Literature review
    6. procedure
    7. Results
    8. Conclusion/ Discussion
    9. Bibliography ( references)

  6. yeferson galeano August 31, 2015 at 10:59 am #

    Yeferson Galeano
    Oscar Flores
    Constructing a Research Paper
    1. Title
    2. Abstract
    3. Introduction
    4. Methods/ procedure
    5. Results
    6. Conclusion/ Discussion
    7. Bibliography
    taken from: http://ece.k-state.edu/~starret/684/paper.html

  7. Johana August 31, 2015 at 3:28 pm #

    Nataly Huertas Luna
    Johana Riobamba Ortega

    ARGUMENTATIVE PAPER

    Introduction: It contains one or two main paragraphs
    It is important because through the introduction you can summarize the general content of your argumentative paper.
    • The purpose
    • Required elements:
    Author and title (Arguing literary work)
    Explanation of theory or issue (Arguing theory)
    State director, year and title (Arguing a film or movie)
    State a claim at the end of the introduction

    Background paragraph
    It is important because it contains the previous theories which will support your argument. Besides, through the development of the background paragraph you will introduce the key words to have a better understanding of your argumentative topic.
    • One or two tops
    • Purpose: Arrange the foundations of your argument
    -Summary of important words
    -Definition of key words
    -Explanation of theories

    Supporting evidence words
    This part of the argumentative paper will be the most relevant because you are going to set examples, facts or reasons which are the basis to hold up your argumentative paper.
    • Purpose (one paragraph)
    • Topic sentence
    • Explain Topic sentence
    • Introduce evidence
    • State evidence
    • Explain evidence
    • Concluding sentence
    If there is more evidence you need to follow the same structure

    Counterargument paragraph
    With a counterargument paragraph you will select different arguments and provide different points of view to refuse or accept an argument.
    • Purpose

    Conclusion
    Thorough the conclusion you will remind your arguments and its evidence in order to finish with your argumentative paper.
    If there is more supporting evidence you have to make a conclusion for each one of them

    Retrived from:
    https://depts.washington.edu/owrc/Handouts/Argumentative%20Paper%20Format.pdf

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