Unit 2: The parts of a research paper

Parts of a Research Paper:

Here is a comprehensive list of the parts a research paper should have. Of course, the parts presented here may correspond to a monograph or more complex paper.

Since this semester we will work on a more simple document,  explore the web and come up with the basic parts a paper should have (in your opinion).

Your task for today is to write down a list of those parts and decide the order they should have. You can do this in pairs.

  • Title page
  • Dedication (optional)
  • Preface (optional)
  • Table of Contents (optional in short papers)
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and method
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix (optional)

Title page:


1. Select an informative title
2. Include the following material in the order given:

  • Title of paper
  • Secondary title (optional)
  • Full name of author
  • Submission statement
  • Date submitted.

The Preface:

If the author wishes he may explain his topic choice and share his interest in the field studied

The Table of Contents (optional in short papers):

In a long research paper, a table of contents should go on a separate page titled TABLE OF CONTENTS. It should contain, with the page number:

  • The title of each chapter or division, followed by the title of each important subdivision
  • The appendix, if the paper has it
  • The bibliography

Abstract:

It is a short (up to 200 words) summary of the entire work. It should include:

It is usually written when the rest of the paper is completed. It allows the reader to learn the essentials of the study in a short period of time.
 
Basic rules:

  • economy of words
  • complete sentences
  • a single concise paragraph
  • writing in a past tense
  • corrrect spelling, clear sentences and phrases, proper reporting of quantities
  • stands on its own, doesn’t refer to any other part of the paper
  • focuses on summarizing results

Introduction:

Has three main purposes:

  • provides background and motivation for the topic
  • describes the focus and purpose of the paper
  • gives an overview of what is contained in the paper’s various sections.

Basic rules:

  • up to two pages (double spaced, typed)
  • usage of a past tense except when referring to established facts
  • one major point in organizing ideas with each paragraph
  • precise statements

Materials and Method:

This section gives the reader enough information to study the subject and to use your materials in his own work if desired. Here you describe what you did, the way you did it, present precise facts, your work is based on.

Basic Do’s and Don’t’s:

  • be as concise as you possibly can
  • use third person passive voice.
  • use complete sentences.
  • avoid informal lists

Results:

This section proves your views with the data. The page length depends on the amount and type of the information to be reported. The purpose of the section is to demonstrate the results of your investigation

Basic rules:

  • use past tense
  • put the results in a logical order
  • refer to each figure as “figure 1,” “figure 2,”; number your tables
  • each figure and table stands on its own
  • do not include raw data or intermediate calculations in your paper
  • do not present the same information more than once

Discussion:

The main purpose of this section is to explain why the results came out as they did, focusing on the principles of the investigation.

Basic Rules:

  • the limit is up to five typed double-spaced pages
  • use past tense referring to work done by specific individuals and present tense referring to generally accepted facts and principles
  • present the data in appropriate depth

Bibliography:

  • list the items in an alphabetical order, by first author
  • don’t include a website as a reference
  • citing an on -line journal, use the journal citation

Appendix (optional):

Sometimes it may serve as a valuable addition to a research paper. It might contain a letter, a map, a table — i. e. materials, that are important to the reader, but they didn’t find their place in the text itself

  • Note that research paper parts are to be found in the text in the same order they were presented here.
  • Please, pay much attention to research paper organization, keeping to the rules studied, and impress your tutor with results of your work.

Taken from: Custom writing

11 Responses to “Unit 2: The parts of a research paper”

  1. Edward Enriquez - Susana Lyons March 7, 2011 at 11:30 am #

    According to the ‘research’ done we can conclude that t he most relevant parts of an undergraduate research paper are:

    1. Introduction
    2. Review of relevant literature
    3. Discussion
    4. Conclusions
    5. Bibliography

    http://doctortext-info.blogspot.com/2009/07/research-paper-format.html

    http://www.ProfessorEvans.com

    http://www.ehow.com/about_4731093_four-parts-research-paper.html

    • Ana C. Sanchez March 7, 2011 at 11:46 am #

      A bit short, you didn’t tell us why you think these are the parts we will need to use this semester.

  2. Lorena Solarte, Angie Ramirez, Francisco Báez March 7, 2011 at 11:34 am #

    Introduction
    • The introduction is generally one paragraph in length, and is where you establish your thesis, or main argument.
    Body
    • The body is where you present your research findings. There is no set length or structure for this section.
    Conclusion
    • The conclusion is where you remind the reader of your thesis and briefly summarize how your findings lend validity to your argument.
    Bibliography
    • The bibliography is where you list all your research sources. A proper bibliography gives the reader confidence in the quality and accuracy of your paper.

    Title
    Here are examples of 3 common types of titles
    • Question: Can PF Correction Increase Profits?
    • Summary: Design and Testing of a Small Power Company
    • 2-Part: Power System Operation: How to Survive an Emergency
    Introduction
    The introduction also has three main purposes. First, it provides background and motivation for your topic (usually includes a review of current literature on the topic). Second, it describes the focus and purpose of the paper you are writing. Third, it gives an overview of what is contained in the paper’s various sections.

    Conclusions/Discussion
    Here you state what your learned or proved. What are the “take home messages” or major accomplishments of this work? You may also describe interesting observations, new questions, and future work here.

    Bibliography
    A list of the references you used in the work & writing the paper.

    Title page:

    1. Select an informative title
    2. Include the following material in the order given:
    • Title of paper
    • Secondary title (optional)
    • Full name of author
    • Submission statement
    • Date submitted.
    Introduction:
    Has three main purposes:
    • provides background and motivation for the topic
    • describes the focus and purpose of the paper
    • gives an overview of what is contained in the paper’s various sections.
    Basic rules:
    • up to two pages (double spaced, typed)
    • usage of a past tense except when referring to established facts
    • one major point in organizing ideas with each paragraph
    • precise statements
    Discussion:
    The main purpose of this section is to explain why the results came out as they did, focusing on the principles of the investigation.
    Basic Rules:
    • the limit is up to five typed double-spaced pages
    • use past tense referring to work done by specific individuals and present tense referring to generally accepted facts and principles
    • present the data in appropriate depth
    Bibliography:
    • list the items in an alphabetical order, by first author
    • don’t include a website as a reference
    • citing an on -line journal, use the journal citation

    we think our paper should include these main parts because it is an easy and broad way to warming up on the creation of our first research paper draft.

    sources:

    http://www.ehow.com/about_4731093_four-parts-research-paper.html

    http://eece.ksu.edu/~starret/684/paper.html

    http://custom-writing.org/blog/writing-tips/free-research-paper-writing-tips/206.html

  3. Diana Pinchao - Cristina Botina - Yasmin Loza March 7, 2011 at 11:36 am #

    We think these are the most suitable parts of a research paper:

    Title

    Introduction: it contains an overview of the issue we are going to discuss in the paper.
    -Thesis statement

    Body: Is the detailed discussion
    -Method
    – Results

    Conclusions: Is where you build upon your discussion and try to refer your findings to other research and to the world at large

    – Discussion

    Reference list

    Biography

    http://www.experiment-resources.com/parts-of-a-research-paper.html
    http://www.personal-writers.com
    http://www.writing-services.org
    http://www.owl.english.purdue.edu

  4. Marolyn Guerrero March 7, 2011 at 11:37 am #

    The Parts of a Research Paper
    A suitable research paper for under-graduates should include:
    – Title: short and precise, giving a general idea.
    – Abstract: a short summary of the entire work.
    – Introduction: includes the focus and purpose of the work as well as an overview of what the paper contains.
    – Materials & Method: here is contained all the information on the subject of your research.
    – Discussion: here are given the views of the author and the conclusions drawn.
    – References: a list of the sources you used throughout the writing process. (not including web sites).

  5. Veronica Rosales March 7, 2011 at 11:42 am #

    Parts of research papers

    Title

    Here are examples of 3 common types of titles

    * Question:What is the effect of the use of technology in the teaching of a foreign language?
    * Summary:Direct method in the teaching of English.
    * 2-Part: Power System Operation:Englis approaches.

    Abstract

    The summary should be two hundred words or less

    The abstract is a short (about 100-500 word) summary of the entire paper. It should include: goals and objectives, results, and conclusions. It is usually one of the last parts of the paper to be written.

    Introduction
    The introduction also has three main purposes. First, it provides background and motivation for your topic (usually includes a review of current literature on the topic). Second, it describes the focus and purpose of the paper you are writing. Third, it gives an overview of what is contained in the paper’s various sections.

    Methods/Procedure
    This section describes what you did, how you did it, gives strategies, sample calculations, diagrams and circuits, and descriptions of equipment. The goal here is to give the reader sufficient inforamation to be able to repeat your work if desired. (Of course some “standard techniques” can be simply referenced).

    Results
    This section is where you prove your point with the data. Give graphs and tables of costs, profits, whatever your data is. Also give some description or guide to help the reader recognize your important points.

    Conclusions/Discussion
    Here you state what your learned or proved.You may also describe interesting observations, new questions, and future work here.

    Bibliography
    A list of the references you used in the work and writing the paper.

    http://eece.ksu.edu/~starret/684/paper.html

  6. Germán Bolaños - Diego Ortiz March 7, 2011 at 11:45 am #

    We think that a suitable research papers for us should have the following 5 parts:

    1. Introduction: this is the first part of the process, setting down the direction of the paper and laying out exactly what the research paper is trying to achieve.

    2. Method and materials: this section gives the reader enough information to study the subject and to use your materials in his own work if desired. Here you describe what you did, the way you did it, present precise facts; your work is based on.

    3. Results: This section proves your views with the data. The purpose of the section is to demonstrate the results of your investigation.

    4. Discussion: The main purpose of this section is to explain why the results came out as they did, focusing on the principles of the investigation.

    5. The reference list: No paper is complete without a reference list, documenting all of the sources that you used for your research.

    http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.html

    http://custom-writing.org/blog/writing-tips/free-research-paper-writing-tips/206.html

    http://www.experiment-resources.com/parts-of-a-research-paper.html

  7. Carolina Montenegro -Jorge Villota March 7, 2011 at 11:46 am #

    Parts of a Research Paper
    The most common parts of a research paper that under-graduates should include in their writing are:
    Title page: This is the main reference to audience will read
    Abstract: a general view of our research paper
    Introduction: it shows the purpose of paper
    Methods/Procedure: it says how you did it; what were your strategies for doing it
    Results: This section is where you prove your point with the data
    Conclusions/Discussion: The conclusion is where you remind the reader of your thesis and briefly summarize how your findings lend validity to your argument
    Bibliography /reference list: A list of the references you used in the paper.

    Resources:

    http://www.google.com.co/search?hl=es&q=parts+of+a+research+paper&aq=4&aqi=g2&aql=&oq=parts+of+a+resea

    http://eece.ksu.edu/~starret/684/paper.html

    http://www.ehow.com/about_4731093_four-parts-research-paper.html#ixzz1FvlWRLJG

    http://www.essaytown.com/writing/parts-of-a-research-paper

    http://custom-writing.org/blog/writing-tips/free-research-paper-writing-tips/206.html

  8. Ana C. Sanchez April 4, 2011 at 11:15 am #

    The idea is not to copy and paste, but to use what you find and say it in your own words to show that you have understood what you are doing.
    Also, parts such as method, procedure, sample, population, belong to a monograph, rather than to a research paper.

  9. customwriting.beep.com January 14, 2013 at 12:22 am #

    This is my first time go to see at here and i am actually happy to read all at
    single place.

    • AC Sanchez January 14, 2013 at 1:36 pm #

      I’m glad you find this blog useful :)

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